State of Pennsylvania

















C. M. KELLER, late Examiner, Patent Office, Washington.










Excerpts from PP. 6 – 12; PP. 77 – 87; PP. 176 – 181

Citations regarding the experience of the Beaver Meadow and Hazleton R. R,Õs are:

WhistlerÕs contact with the BMRR and Hazleton roads.

The success of the BMRR in utilizing anthracite.

Use of the horizontal boiler in Garrett & Eastwick engines.

Operations and repair costs for BMRR and Hazleton coal-burners.



Report upon the Use of Anthracite Coal in Locomotive Engines on the Reading Railroad, made to the President of the Reading Railroad Company,


by GEORGE W. Whistler, Jr., April 20, 1849.


John  Tucker, ESQ., President.


Sir: Agreeably to your request that I should make to you a report of my observations upon the Reading Railroad, relative to the use of anthracite coal in Locomotive Engines, comprehending its present comparative results with the Engines burning wood upon that road, and its ultimate economy, deduced from such data as I am enabled to get from this and other roads using raw coal as fuel, I beg to submit the following statements:


The Comparison of Engines in their Consumption of Fuel.


The observations made by me upon the Reading Railroad, were between the 23d September and 26th October of the past year, during which time I was absent from the road for a period of two weeks, making examinations of a similar character upon the Hazleton and Beaver Meadow Railroads. The number of trips which I record are, 17 of the Baltimore Coal Engines; 5 of the eight-wheeled Coal Engine Novelty; and 3 of the eight-wheeled wood-burning Engine Indiana. There were four other trips made upon the Baltimore Coal Engines, but not taken into this account; two were broken by derangement to the Engine, and two were neglected, being way trips. Two additional trips were made with the Novelty; upon one the coal for the use of the Engine was lost, and upon the other a derangement of the Engine spoiled the trip. A fourth trip was also made upon a wood Engine, but with a way tram, and is not included in this account.


I give you, further on, a statement of each trip as it was made, and from which I have calculated the table of comparative results.


For making these observations, I had every facility extended to me by Mr. G. A. Nicolls, the Engineer and Superintendent of the road, and all information relative to repairs of Engines necessary to a satisfactory comparison, furnished me. I was also permitted to take any Engines in the coal trade for trial, and run them over the road at such times as would subject them to the least delays, and give the most daylight for the observations. I availed of this privilege but twice; being desirous that the trips should be made under the same circumstances as those recorded each day of the wood Engines, which were running in their turn by the regulations of the road, and the quantities of fuel used (consumed or wasted) for each trip was recorded.


As care is taken to ascertain the quantities of fuel used by the wood Engines, a statement of which has been made to yourself by the Engineer and Superintendent, showing what that quantity was for July and August last, I have not considered it necessary to make observations upon these Engines, further than to ascertain if the frosty season of the year, during which they were made, caused any material difference in these results, but as I found none, the trips were soon discontinued. With the coal Engines, however, the amounts of fuel consumed per trip have not been ascertained, and my observations have been directed more particularly to them. The fuel used for the coal Engines was, in all cases, noted as the difference in weight between that taken at one end of the road and that remaining at the other. Of the trips here recorded I made seven myself, two upon a Baltimore Engine and five upon the Novelty, and was assisted in the remainder by young men whom I put upon the Engines.


9 trips up, coal used = 40.35 =  4.45 per trip.

8 trips down, coal used = 39.55 =  4.95 per trip = 9.40 per round trip.

Average load down, 90 cars, with 450 tons of coal.


As the results here given are inclusive of all waste, a deduction should be made, and a quantity of coal somewhat nearer that actually consumed taken for a comparison with wood. The coal supplied for Locomotive Engines to the Reading Road is of good quality, (Forest Improvement,) the only drawback being the large percentage of fine coal and dirt intermixed with it. Cars containing 55 tons in weight, have in them from a half to one and a half tons of this dross, a part of which is thrown from the tender upon the road and estimated as fuel consumed.


This waste amounts to about half a ton per trip; I propose, however, to deduct but five per cent. from the gross weight, as that allowance is made by the parties furnishing coal, and has no corresponding equivalent in wood.

Five per cent. deducted from 79.9 leaves 76 tons of coal for 17 trips.

Trip up = 4.25 tons. Trip down 4.75tons. Round trip = 9 tons.







Richmond to Pottsville

Oct. 10

85 Cars

5.75 Tons of Coal

Pottsville to Richmond

Oct. 11



Pottsville to Richmond

Oct. 13



Richmond to Pottsville

Oct. 14



Pottsville to Richmond

Oct. 16



Total quantity of coal used in 5 trips



2 trips up, coal used 11.25 = 5.62 tons per trip.

3 trips down, coal used 16.85 = 5.63  tons per trip.

Coal used per round trip, 11.25

Deduct 5 per cent for waste, 10.70 tons per round trip.

Avenge load down, 75 cars, with 375 tons of coal.

The fuel used Oct. 16th, includes half a cord of wood, which is estimated as one quarter of a ton of coal.








Richmond to Pottsville

Oct. 9

95 Cars

6.87 Cords of Wood

Pottsville to Richmond

Oct. 10



Richmond to Pottsville

Oct. 11



Total quantity of coal used in 5 trips



2 trips up, wood used 14 cords = 7 cords per trip.

1 trips down, wood used 7.37 cords  = 7.37 cords per trip.

Wood used per round trip with 88 cars down, containing 440 tons of coal, 14.37 cords.



By the reports for the months of July and August, the fuel used for the Engine Champlain, weighing 20 tons, on six driving wheels, with cylinders 16 in. in diameter by 18 in. stroke, and working its steam expansively, is 10.25 cords of wood per round trip of 190 miles.


The fuel consumed by the Reading-built six-wheeled Engines, shown in the statement for comparison, is taken from the report for July and August already referred to, as well as the average quantity of fuel per trip for all wood Engines in the coal trade during that time. The quantity and cost of fuel per 100 tons of coal transported, as shown in the summary of the foregoing observations, includes the return trips with empty cars, the power exerted in either direction being very nearly the same.


The Reading Railroad is 95 miles in length, with a total fall of 600 feet greatest fall at any part of the road, 20 to 25 feet per mile; it has no ascending grades in the direction of the trade, except within five miles of Philadelphia, where assistant Engines are stationed. The return load for each Engine is about one-third the entire gross weight of train brought down,, which is the weight of cars alone.


Weight of cars, 25 tons, coal in cars, 5 tons.

Total weight of coal and car, 7.5 tons of 2240 lbs.

Cost of wood in the following statement, $4 per cord, do. of coal, $2.75 per ton of 2240 lbs.


To facilitate a comparison of the various Engines on the road, a short description of their principal features is given.


Engine Novelty.

Engine on eight driving wheels, 46 inches diameter. Boiler on a separate carriage behind the engine, and connected with it by flexible steam pipes, (a system of ball and slip joints;) weight of Engine 21.5 tons. Diameters of cylinders 18 inches, and length of stroke 20 inches. Area of fire grate 36 feet, fire surface 1085 feet. Placed upon the Engine is a cylinder of boiler iron about 42 inches in diameter, and 18 feet long, having a connexion with the water-tank, immediately behind the boiler. This cylinder of boiler iron answers the double purpose of giving adhesion to the Engine, and as a condenser for the exhaust steam from the cylinder, by which the water from the tank is heated before passing into the boiler; the combustion of coal is promoted by a fan blast.


Baltimore Engines.

Total weight of Engines with coal, fuel and water, 27 tons; weight on eight driving wheels 25 tons; do. on two small trailing wheels, 2 tons; diameter of boiler 42 inches; length of tubes 14 feet; diameter of do. 2-5/8 inches; area of grate 18 feet; fire surface 957 feet; diameter of driving wheels 46 inches; diameter of cylinders 16.5 inches, and length of stroke 20 inches; the draft is regulated by the variable exhaust in the smoke stack; steam cut-off in the cylinders at half stroke.


Eight- Wheeled Wood Engines.

Total weight of Engines 22.5 tons, on eight driving wheels 46 inches in diameter. Cylinders 15.5 inches in diameter, and 20 inch stroke; fire surface about 875 feet; area of grate about 12 feet.


Tabulated Comparison of Engines on the Reading B. B. Fuel Consumed.


The foregoing statement shows an accurate comparison of the coal and wood-burning engines upon the Reading Road in their consumption of fuel; and as the observations have extended over a considerable time, I have no doubt these quantities will be found very near the actual consumptions per trip, during the mild seasons of the year, for then the delays are unimportant, and but few broken trips occur to swell the averages; still, as it is understood that the comparative and not the actual quantities of fuel consumed by each class of Engines is the information sought for, any want of accuracy in estimating the latter is unimportant.


I am aware that the results just given of the consumption of fuel differ from those given by Mr. Nicolls in the report made to yourself last fall. He there says, that in the spring of 1848 the Baltimore Engines used 9.64 tons of coal per round trip, but that great care was taken in the selection of fuel, and in running the Engines; and he further says, that it is his belief that the everyday consumption of fuel by these Engines is about 12 tons per round trip. That Mr. Nicolls is mistaken in his belief the facts will show; and he has allowed himself to be lead into this error by drawing hasty conclusions from unanalogous facts. Thus, as the experiments made in the spring of the last year show that 390 tons of coal were transported with an average expenditure of 10.89 cords of wood, and that 425 tons of coal were transported by the Baltimore Engines with a consumption of 9.64 tons of coal; that this proportion holds good between the wood and coal Engines at all times; and therefore, as the actual amount of fuel used by all the wood Engines, during the months of July and August, was 13.42 cords per round trip, transporting 423 tons of coal, the Baltimore Engines had consequently consumed about 12 tons of coal in transporting 475 tons of coal.


In determining the excellence of a Locomotive Engine, one of the most important points to be considered is the ability to generate an abundance of steam at all times, not only to do the work required of the Engine when all things, are favorable to its well-working, but under ordinary or even adverse circumstances. To insure this, there is required for an Engine the power to burn a large or small quantity of fuel in a given time, and to this end a large fire-place and area through the tubes are necessary, with the means of increasing or diminishing at pleasure the blast of the exhaust steam. By such an arrangement the Engine-man has under control the draft through the fire, and with it the consumption of fuel, but upon the judicious management of this power, depends the merit of this first excellency in a Locomotive Engine.


The Baltimore Coal Engines have the abundance of steam-generating power for all emergencies, and under the control of the Engine-man; but the nature of anthracite coal as a fuel for Locomotive purposes, and the want of experience in its use, will prevent, for a time, that degree of economy in its consumption which is attained with wood under the same circumstances, but by long experience.


The Reading Railroad Company have at present but few coal-burning Engines on their road; and as these have been in use but a few months, and no roads using anthracite coal furnish to it available experience, it is not to be expected that a comparison of the utmost economy of coal and wood, made in the spring of 1848, can be made the basis for a rule-of-three method of arriving at the present everyday consumption of this fuel; facts disprove it; for it will he seen by my own observations, that the average amount of fuel consumed during the ordinary working of these Engines for several successive days, over the road, does not exceed these last spring experiments, while single trips were made with very much less fuel; it is well known, also, that the Engines have not unfrequently been run with little more than one-half this consumption of fuel; but the want of experience in the use of anthracite coal with Locomotive Engines having the cut-off, and variable exhaust, has been a great drawback to the constant economical consumption of this fuel.


The success attending the use of anthracite coal upon the Beaver Meadow and Hazleton Railroads induced numerous attempts to be made by the Reading and other Railroad Companies, to introduce this fuel by similar means upon their own roads; but the length of road and heavy business to which the Engines were subjected soon proved its impracticability; showing, moreover, that the successful burning of anthracite coal upon the Beaver Meadow and Hazleton Roads does not depend so much upon the peculiarities of their Engines - consisting in an absence of ash-pan and the exhausting in numerous small jets up the smoke stack, for the purpose of equalizing the draft through the fire - as it does upon the short roads (each 14 miles) and the small amount of work done by each Engine; and my observations upon these roads convinced me that their own success falls short of the requirements of the Reading Road.


Now, while the quantity of fuel consumed per round trip, under the most favorable circumstances, in the Baltimore Engines, is stated by Mr. Nicolls to be 9.64 tons of coal, my own observations upon the every-day working of the road show, in one case, but 7.5 tons per round trip, and I have reason to believe that round trips have not unfrequently been made with as little as 6 tons of coal. Again, while Mr. Nicolls estimates that 12 tons of coal per round trip is the every-day consumption of fuel, the average of my own observations on seventeen trips is but 9 tons, and the daily observations of the Superintendents of Engines and Machinery at either end of the road, does not lead them to give a higher estimate than 9 tons per round trip.


In explanation of the excess of fuel used in the wood-burning Engines during the months of July and August, over the experiments made in the spring, Mr. Nicolls says that the quantities of fuel include that used for way and broken trips, which always swell the averages. The way trips are a very small proportion of the trips through (one in ten); and if broken trips have reference to short trips caused by accidents, these can have increased the quantities of fuel used per trip but slightly; for during July and August the road was remarkably free from accidents, I believe entirely so.


By last year's annual report, Mr. Nicolls estimates that 1,360,000 tons of coal were transported during twelve months, in average loads and with an avenge consumption of fuel per Engine as follows:


354 tons transported with        15.83 cords wood in 1847.

423 tons transported with         13.42 cords wood in July & August, 1848.

69   tons more transported with  2.41 cords wood less.


There may be great economy in the consumption of fuel this year over that shown in the report for last year; but I doubt if the quantities for July and August could be reduced, for the work done, below the statement made above.


With respect to the Novelty, and her performance as a coal-burning Engine, I have little to say; I was so fortunate as to see the Engine for several successive days, under admitted favorable circumstances, and though it made good time over the road, I could but agree in the opinion generally entertained and expressed of its entire impracticability.


It may be a matter of surprise that this Engine, provided with a condenser, and having twice the area of grate that the Baltimore Engines have, should consume nearly half as much more fuel in doing the same work; but a large percentage of the steam generated is required to drive a fan; and again, there is a loss by condensation and leakage in the steam pipe leading from the boiler to the cylinders, which is about thirty feet long, and greatly exposed; there is also a waste of fuel in the fire-place, caused by its very great size, the heat being so intense from the mass of fire exposed, as to prevent the men from clearing the grate of cinder, except just at the door, and consequently the cinder and coal accumulate upon the grate, and the blast has gradually to be increased as the Engine progresses on its way. The loss of fuel from this cause is apparent on the last twenty miles of each trip, the gases formed by the partial combustion of coal being burned at the chimney top.


The Comparison of Engines in their Cost for Repairs.


The most satisfactory comparison of the cost of maintaining Locomotive Engines, is that shown by a statement of the miles run during a certain period of time; but when Engines under comparison differ in their construction, for the purpose of developing some new mode of action, or, as in the case on the Reading Railroad, for the use of a new fuel, then a fair difference in their cost for repairs would be that excess caused by the use of one fuel as compared with the other, and also any excess in repairs caused by a mode of construction differing from that which is common, but necessary to the use of the new fuel.


The Reading Railroad has two distinct classes of Engines in the coal trade; the first and most numerous are the Engines burning wood, and of these there are several varieties, some on eight and others on six wheels, but all essentially alike, and the principal part of them were built at Philadelphia by Mr. M. W. Baldwin. The second class, burning anthracite coal, are few in number, and, with the exception of the Engine Novelty, were built at Baltimore by Mr. Ross Winans.


A description of these two classes of Engines has been given in the first part of this report, and it is only necessary to explain in what manner the Baltimore Coal Engines differ from the eight wheeled wood Engines built at the same time and under the same specification, with a clause in the contract for the former, having reference to the burning coal. The essential point in which the Baltimore Engine differ from the wood Engines, is their having a much larger fire-place and area of grate for the combustion of coal; this increase of fire-grate was gotten by an addition made to the ordinary fire-box, and projecting back from that part of the fire-box immediately under the foot-board; this mode of construction threw the engine out of balance, for it was found that, of the twenty-seven tons weight (with coal and water) on eight driving wheels, 16.5 tons were on the four back drivers, and 10.5 tons on the four front drivers; to correct this disproportion of weight on the driving wheels, as well as to relieve the Engine of a portion of its adhesion, a small pair of trailing wheels were placed behind the fire-box, which bore two tons weight of the Engine, and also transferred two tons to the four forward drivers, thus balancing the Engine on its eight driving wheels, with twenty-five tons of adhesion. Of the Engines proper, cylinders, pistons, cross- heads, connecting rods, crankpins, frame, boxes, springs, wheels, valves, &c., there is no part of their construction which has any connexion with the burning of coal, and these parts differ from similar, parts of wood Engines, as one builder differs from another, for reasons wholly independent of the boiler and its purposes; therefore the increased expenditure for repairs on account of the peculiar construction which is necessary to the use of coal, is confined in these Engines to the increased size of the fire place, and the small pair of trailing wheels for the support of its overhanging weight.


The principal item of excess in the cost for repairs of Engines burning coal over those burning wood, is caused by the destructive effects of a coal fire upon the inside sheets of the fire box; and when iron (the soundness of which is always uncertain from the manner in which it is at present made) has been used entirely for fire-boxes, this intense local heat has very soon blistered and burned away the sheets in the immediate vicinity of the coal fire. Another destructive effect from the use of coal is its severity on the laps or joinings of sheets in the fire place. To obviate this difficulty much larger sheets were used, but this again was found to increase the first evil, and finally, the uncertainty of procuring perfectly sound sheets of boiler iron of large size, (the difficulty of making them sound increasing with their size,) led to the abandonment of iron sheets for a distance of two feet above the grate, and the substitution of copper as a more certainly sound material.


The experience on the Reading Railroad with anthracite coal has developed a rapid and unexpected destruction to the copper fire sheets, from the mechanical action of the sharp particles of coal which flake off' from the fresh coal when suddenly heated, and impinge upon and cut away the copper sheets forming the sides to the fire place. The occasional melting of grate bars, the increased liability to leakage, the wear and destruction to the ends of tubes by caulking, &c., and the accumulation and igniting of fine coal in the smoke box, all produce their share of extra expense for repair over wood-burning Engines.


In order to judge with some degree of accuracy of the use of anthracite coal in Locomotive Engines, when compared with the use of wood, as well as in its effects upon the Engines, as the business of the road, I have given the date at which each coal Engine made its first trip upon the Reading Road, the number of trips made to the first of October last, and the miles run by each Engine during one year, estimated from the recorded trips; also the average number of miles run by the eight and six-wheeled wood Engines as shown by the report for 1841. Of the Baltimore Engines, the Delaware and Maryland had iron fireboxes throughout, while the Baltimore and Ohio had copper sheets in their fire places, extending two feet above and one below the surface of the grate. The Novelty, during the time she has been upon the road, has had two boilers; the first boiler had an iron firebox of very large dimensions, the second, made in the spring of 1848, also has an iron fire-box, but of smaller dimensions.


Tabulated Comparison of Engines on the Reading Railroad - Miles Run.

*Time lost by renewing fire -sheets, included in the year.


The Baltimore, which came upon the road June 18th, 1847, completed her 251 trips in August, 1848, at which time she was brought into the shop to have the copper sheets in the fire place renewed, and did not commence her trips again upon the road till October 23d. The Maryland and Delaware each had their iron fire sheets renewed with copper, after seven months use. The Ohio has still, April, 1849, the original copper sheets in her fire-box.


By the foregoing statement, it will be seen that the Baltimore's copper fire place has lasted fourteen months; this is about one-third of the time experience had proved similar fire places to last in Engines burning bituminous coal upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and from which experience it was confidently expected that the copper fire places in Engines burning anthracite coal would last two years. The immediate cause of this speedy destruction on the Reading Railroad is the large quantity of fuel which is required to be burned in a given time, thus hastening the destructive effects of coal, as already explained, in proportion to the quantity consumed.


The extent of the destruction to fire sheets caused by the mechanical action of the particles of coal is very limited, about fourteen inches in width through the entire length of the fire place, seven inches above and the same below the surface of the coal fire. In the line of the staybolts, both vertically and horizontally, the copper retains its original thickness, and upon the copper sheet immediately below the tube or flue sheet, there is no indication of wear, and none could take place from the causes just mentioned; for the particles of coal which are carried towards the tubes, bank against and protect this sheet. The melting of grate bars consequent upon the use of coal is quite uncertain, I have known whole sets to be destroyed as often as once a month, and again, with care, a single set to last several months. The principal causes which govern this waste are, the care bestowed by the firemen in keeping clear the fire-grate and ash-pan, and the nature of the coal used. If cinder is allowed to adhere and accumulate upon the grate, it will soon be destroyed; for the current of air is prevented that free access through all parts of the grate so necessary to its preservation. The neglect, however, to keep the ash-pan free from cinder and ashes, and when free, flooded with water to the depth of several inches, is the great cause of destruction to the grate bars. With bad coal, grate bars have melted by the accumulation of cinder which has taken place in a single trip; this, however, rarely occurs. The extra caulking of tubes, which is required by the use of coal, makes it necessary in time to remove the tubes, and to weld on new ends; some slight wear is also caused within a few inches of their ends by the mechanical action of the particles of coal, but producing no material injury.


I have thus stated the causes which produce the principal excess of repairs in Engines burning coal, over wood-burning Engines, and submit below an estimate of the entire extra cost of the Baltimore coal Engines, (so far as this cost for repairs relates to the burning of coal,) over the Engines burning wood upon the Reading Railroad of like power.


Cost per Engine for Renewing Fire Box.

800 lbs. Copper Fire-sheets, at 26cents, . . . . . . .


110 lbs. Copper Stay-bolts, " . . . . . . . . .


66 lbs. Iron Stay-bolts at 6cents, . . . . . . . .  


2-1/2 days' work cutting stay-bolts, at $3, . . . . . . . .


7 weeks' work of two men removing old and renewing fire-sheets, at $10 per week,


7 weeks' work of two men, at $7 per week, at ditto, . . . . . 




Deduct for 600 lbs. old copper, at l8cents, . . . . . . .


Cost for renewing fire-place, . . . . . . . . . .



The Baltimore's copper fire-place was renewed after fourteen months' service, and if this be supposed the limit of durability on the Reading Road, it will involve an annual expense of . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Deduct for depreciation of fire-box of wood-burning Engines in this  time


Remaining. . . . . . . . . . .




Extra Cost per year or Wood Engines, for each Baltimore Coal Engine on the Reading Railroad, from the use of Anthracite Coal

Cost for renewing fire place, . . . . . . . . . .


3sets of grate-bars, - 3225 1bs.cast iron, at 23cents, . . . . . .


Door plates, 500 lb. cast iron, at 2-1/2 cents, . . . . . .


4 daysÕ work of two men removing 50 tubes, at $1.75 and $1, . . .


7 days' work of two men welding new ends to tubes, at $1.75 and $1,


831b.wrought iron for repairing tubes, at 6cents, 


3 days' work of three men caulking tubes, one man at $l.75, and two at $1 per day,


Extra work, caulking, &c., . . . . . .


Work in smoke box, . . . . . 


1 set of trailing wheels, 300 lbs cast iron, at 2cents, . . . .


1 day's work of two men fitting up ditto, at $2 and $1.50, . . 





Experience proves that much unnecessary expense may be avoided in renewing the copper fire sheets of these Engines; for all that part of the copper which extends below the surface of the grate (thirteen inches) is entirely uninjured, and therefore does not require to be removed, and in estimating the necessary cost for repairs of these Engines, the item of copper may be reduced one-third, and in constructing Engines of equal power, a saving may be made in the original outlay, as sheets of copper twenty-five inches wide will be found quite sufficient for all purposes of protection from intense heat, for the water way in the fire-place need not extend below the grate further than is common, say one or two inches.


I have made no comparative estimate of the cost for repairs for the Baltimore Coal Engines and the coal Engine Novelty; the miles run during one year by these Engines is the most satisfactory that could be made. The fire-place of the Novelty's boiler has proved quite as destructible as the fire-place of the Baltimore Engines; already several sheets have been renewed in the new boiler, after a few months' work; and I think it will be found, that although made uncommonly large, for the purpose of diffusing the local heat, its cost to keep in repair (when compared with the fireplace of the Baltimore Engines) will be found to increase in proportion to its size. In the destruction of grate bars, wear and tear of extra parts and machinery necessary to her coal-burning peculiarities, there can be no doubt of greatly increased costs over the Baltimore Engines.


Experience of the Baltimore and Ohio and other Railroads, in the use of Coal in Locomotive Engines.


It will be difficult to form any correct estimate of the value of anthracite coal as a fuel in comparison with wood, from any direct experiments that were made on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, from its earliest introduction in 1831, to its final abandonment for bituminous coal in 1840. The early reports of this company give a great many facts, and show most conclusively that this coal was used with entire success in all the Engines on the road, which, in 1840, numbered fifteen on the "Main Stem." The Engines were built with upright boilers expressly for the use of anthracite coal, and no experiments were made to test its relative value with wood. The company did not determine to use coal on the score of economy, for at the opening of the road, and for some time after, coal was $8 per ton, while wood did not exceed $2.50 per cord, the danger from fire, however, by the use of wood, but, more than all, the precedent of the English Railways then just coming into successful operation, which pointed to a mineral fuel as seemingly the only fuel fit for Locomotive Engines, were the considerations which induced its use. In the spring and summer of 1840, however, an investigation was made of the relative values of anthracite and bituminous coal, by Mr. James Murray, then Engineer of Machinery on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; these experiment will enable a fair comparison to be instituted between anthracite coal and wood; for the oft repeated trials of bituminous coal with wood have established their equivalent quantities beyond a doubt.


To a more ready understanding of the facts which I shall present of the experience with fuel on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and the application of these facts to the Reading Road, a short description of this road to its present terminus is given. The road is 178 miles long, but divided for working into two portions; first, from Baltimore to Harper's Ferry, 80 miles; second, from Harper's Ferry to Cumberland, 98 miles.


Baltimore to HarperÕs Ferry.

8 miles rise 30 to 40 feet per mile,

7 miles fall from 30 to 40 feet per mile,

2 miles  rise at 82feet per mile,

2 miles fall at 82feet per mile,

46  miles rise and fall from 0 to 30 feet  per mile.

15 miles  level.

80 miles  total length, with a total rise of 852feet, and fall of 647feet.

15 miles  are curved with a less radius than 1000 feet.

           Total curvature, 31 circles of 3600.

80 miles  of edge rail, 51 lb.. per yard.

30 miles  of plate rail, 15 lb.. per yard, (portion of double track.)

Gross load for Engine, weighing 23.5 tons - 200 tons



This load is regulated by the necessity for carrying it a portion of the distance on the plate rail. At the 82 feet grades assistant Engines are provided.


Harper's Ferry to Cumberland

14 miles, rise from 30 to 40 feet per mile.

10 miles fall from 30 to 40  feet per mile.

33 miles rise and fall from 0 to 30feet per mile.

41 miles level.

98 miles total length, and with a total rise of 998 feet, and fall of 634 feet.

1.6 miles are curved with a lees radius than 1000 feet.

                Total curvature, 29 circles of 360¡.

98 miles  of edge rail, 51 lbs. per yard.

Gross load for Engines weighing 23.5 tons - 275 tons.


The first successful effort to burn anthracite coal in Locomotive Engines was made upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1831, by Phineas Davis, of York, Pennsylvania, in a small Engine built by him, having an upright boiler; the weight of this Engine was 3.5 tons, and was capable of transporting 15 tons at fifteen miles per hour. The same plan of Engines was adopted and adhered to for this road until 1838, with modifications and improvements from time to time; chiefly consisting in an increase of their weight, 12.5 tons being the maximum. These Engines are now in successful operation, transporting merchandize and passengers, and show themselves quite equal to compete with those of larger and later constructtion. In 1833 the Engine Atlantic, weighing 65 tons, with 4 tons on the driving wheels, ran 13,280 miles, at 80 miles per day, with the consumption of 190 tons of anthracite coal. Gross load 23 tons. In 1834 the Engine Arabian, weighing 7.5 tons, on four driving wheels, consumed 1.25 tons of anthracite coal per trip of 80 miles. Gross load 45 tons. In 1840, when anthracite coal was abandoned for bituminous, a trial for two months was instituted in the same Engine, weighing 10.5 tons. Gross load 60 tons. This Engine ran to Frederick, distant 60 miles, and consumed 1 ton of bituminous coal to 1.25 of anthracite, and these results, I am told by Mr. Murray, held remarkably true throughout the trial. In 1840 and 1841, an accurate account was taken of the fuel consumed in eight wood and eleven coal-burning Engines. The wood-burning Engines weighed each 10 tons, with 6.5 tons on a single pair of driving wheels. The coal Engines weighed 9.75 tons on two pair of driving wheels.


8 Wood Engines, running 78,443 miles, consumed 2023 cords pine wood.

11 Coal Engines, running 77382 miles, consumed 1597 tons bituminous coal.

Wood consumed per trip of 80 miles with 40 tons gross load, 2.05 cords.

Coal consumed per trip of 80 miles with 60 tons gross load, 1.65 tons.

Proportion of coal to wood consumed per load taken, 1 ton to 1.87 cords.


No further additions were made to the stock of coal-burning Engines on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad until 1844, the road then being open to Cumberland. In October of that year, Ross Winans produced the first successful coal-burning Engine with a horizontal boiler; for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, like the Reading Road, had made an unsuccessful effort to burn anthracite coal in an Engine built for them by Eastwick & Harrison, with a horizontal boiler, similar to the Engines furnished by the same parties to the Beaver Meadow and Hazleton Roads. Of the Engines built by Ross Winans, with horizontal boilers, six were placed upon the road between October, 1844, and July, 1845, and six others between July and December, 1846. One other Engine, substantially like these, but built by the company, was placed upon the road in May, 1847. These thirteen Engines weigh each 23.5 tons, and have eight driving wheels 33 inches in diameter. Speed is attained through the medium of cog-gearing. The first six Engines were without copper fire-sheets, but renewed with copper after one year's service with the iron. The later built Engines wert all constructed with copper fire-sheets.


The coal consumed by these Engines in 1845, was 3.25 tons between Baltimore and Harper's Ferry, with a gross load of 200 to 250 tons. In September and October, 1848, twenty-four trips were made with the same Engines on the upper or Cumberland end of the road, and thirty trips on the lower or Baltimore end of the road, for the purpose of testing the value of different coals. Average gross loads between Baltimore and Harper's Ferry, 200 tons, coal consumed, 2.25 tons per trip of 80 miles. Average gross loads between Harper's Ferry and Cumberland, 275 tons, coal consumed, 2.5 tons per trip of 98 miles. For a more ready comparison of the results which are known of the consumption of fuel on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, I have placed them in the following table:


Table Showing the Amount, of Fuel Consumed on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Different Periods, from 1833 to 1848.


The cost for repairs of the large coal Engines on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, I am able to give with much accuracy; the annual reports furnish some of this information, but to Mr. Perkins, the Master of Machinery, I am indebted for details.


In 1841, the thirteen large coal Engines ran each 16,000 miles; in 1848, they ran 17,000 miles, anti cost for repairs $1777 each; of this sum, however, a portion is due to the geared construction, which adapts them to the short curves of this road, but that which is due to coal-burning is as follows: Cost for renewing the fire-sheets of 23.5 tons Engines on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, after deducting for old copper, $300. Area of fire-grate, and amount of copper in fire-place, one-third less than Reading coal Engines. This difference in the amount of copper is not a necessary one, for the sheets of copper in the Reading Engines are wider, by ten inches, than the fire-sheets of the Baltimore and Ohio coal Engines, and do not extend above the grate a further distance.


In six of these large Engines, the copper fire-sheets were put in between November, 1845, and June, 1846, and one only has been renewed since; and, from their resent appearance, there is no reason to doubt their lasting through this year. In giving the extra cost for repairs of these Engines, $100 per year is taken to cover the destruction to the fire-box.


Extra Cost per year, over Wood Engine., for each 23.5 ton Coal Engine on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from the use of Bituminous Coal


Cost for renewing fireplace, . . . . .


2 sets of grate bars, 1000 lbs. cast iron, at 2-1/2 cents, .


Renewing ends of tubes, caulking, &c., . . .


Extra work, caulking, &c., . . . . . .





In 1842, the Western Railroad Corporation of Massachusetts, purchased seven large coal-burning Engines of Ross Winans; these Engines were on eight driving wheels thirty-three inches in diameter, and geared for speed; weight of Engines, 20 to 23 tons; boilers upright; area of grate, 24 feet. In April of the same year, the Engineer of the Road, by an order of the Board, had trials made for five successive days with the Engine Maryland, weighing 20 tons, for the purpose of ascertaining the quantity of fuel consumed. These trials were made on that portion of the road between Albany and Springfield, distance 100 miles. In running 500 miles with fair loads due to the adhesion, the consumption of fuel (anthracite coal) was 2.5 tons per trip of 100 miles. The large wood-burning Engines on that road, weighing 20 tons, with 14 tons on four driving wheels, (when drawing their load,) consumed four cords of wood per trip of 100 miles. This comparison of wood and coal shows 1 ton of anthracite coal to be equal to 2.26 cords of wood; a comparison more favorable to anthracite coal than any I know of. The upright boiler, however, of these Engines, with their large area of grate, were well adapted to burn anthracite coal; while the hemlock wood used on this portion of the Western Railroad was an inferior fuel to the mixture of pine and oak common in this section of the country.


The use of anthracite coal was continued in these Engines until the close of the year 1842, when, from motives of economy, (cost of coal $7 per ton, and wood $3 per cord,) and to ensure greater regularity on a long line of road, with a single track and a heavy business, (which the want of experience in the use of this fuel in some degree prevented,) coal was abandoned for wood. As wood-burners, these Engines were not economical; and as the upright boiler was a source of considerable expense, owing to the sediment which collected on the tube-head, they were, in 1846, placed in ordinary and other Engines substituted on the road.


The Beaver Meadow Railroad is fourteen miles long from the foot of its inclined planes, where it is intersected by the Hazleton Railroad, to its terminus at Much Chunk. The grades of this road are eighty feet per mile, till it strikes the Lehigh river, distant five miles; and from this point to Mauch Chunk (nine miles) the road falls with the river from twenty to fifty feet per mile; it has short curves al is laid with a light plate rail.


There are six Engines on the road burning anthracite coal, they weigh about fourteen tons, with ten tons on four driving wheels. The first Engine was placed upon the road in 1837, and was built by Garrett, Eastwick & Co. Loads for engines up the grade, forty-five tons gross, exclusive of Engine and tender (seventeen tons). The work is done upon this portion of the road with three Engines, each running daily seventy miles during twelve hours, and the fuel consumed is about 2.75 tons of anthracite coal per Engine. Gross load per round trip of 28 miles, 230 tons.


The Hazleton Railroad, from Hazleton to its intersection with the Beaver Meadow Road, is nine and a half miles long, and from this point to the Lehigh river at Penn Haven, (five miles,) the Beaver Meadow Railroad is used in common by the two companies. The grades upon the first four miles of the road from Hazleton are light; then descending at sixty feet per mile for four miles; and then at one hundred and forty feet per mile for one and a half miles, to its intersection with the Beaver Meadow Road; the loads up the one hundred and forty feet grade are divided. The remaining five miles over which the Hazleton Company carry their coal, fills at eighty feet per mile to the Lehigh river. Road laid with plate rail and short curves. Engines similar to those on the Beaver Meadow Road; first one went to work in 1839. Number of Engines at work each day, loads taken, miles run, and fuel consumed, same as Beaver Meadow Road.


The cost for repairs of Engines on these two last-named roads, 1 am not able to give; but as experience shows that the fire-boxes (which are of iron) last from five to six years, the extra cost for repairs due to the use of anthracite coal would appear very immaterial. There are, however, considerations which should betaken into account in judging the value of the results in the use of coal on these roads. During the three winter months, these roads are not worked, and the amount of fuel consumed is about two-thirds of that consumed in the Engines on the Reading Road in the same working time. The short run (not exceeding fourteen miles) also enables a thin fire to be kept, which is cleared of cinder at each end of the road, while the Engine is being turned and attached to its return load; but, before starting, it becomes necessary to replenish the fire-place with wood, and thus a new fire is kindled every few hours in the day. This system is quite practicable on roads where the consequent delays are not felt, but entirely inapplicable to the Reading Road.




In concluding this Report on the use of anthracite coal in locomotive engines, with reference to the present practice and prospective results upon the Reading Railroad, I would offer a few remarks touching the facts just recited, confident that these facts comprehend all that relates to mineral fuel in locomotive engines which is desired to be known by your company, and will establish the proportion of coal to wood consumed, and also the extra expense, in repairs of engines, consequent upon the use of this fuel.


The results of the observations upon the Reading Road have been given in detail, and the proportion of coal to wood consumed for equal amounts of work done, is shown to be 1 ton of anthracite coal in the Baltimore engines, to 1.8 cords of wood in the Reading built engines, 1.64 cords in the eight-wheeled Baldwin engines, and 1.37 cords in the engine Champlain, built also by Mr. Baldwin.


The apparent discrepancy in these results may be accounted for in the effect produced by cutting off the supply of steam to the cylinders of some of the engines after a portion of the stroke is made; which, in well proportioned engines, results in an economy of fuel. Of the engines under consideration, the Baltimore coal-burners and the Champlain are cut-off or full-stroke engines at pleasure, while the eight and six-wheeled wood engines are worked at full stroke only.


In making comparisons from the consumption of fuels, I shall endeavor to show, from the relative merits of these several engines, how coal may reasonably be expected to compare with wood, when all the engines are using fuel economically, taking the Champlain for the standard, as the best proportioned engine on the road for the adhesion she has to overcome, and as comparing favorably with like engines upon other railways in her consumption of fuel.


 The water evaporated by these amounts of fuel I am not able to state, except in the instance of the coal engines at 14,400 gallons, and the eight. wheeled wood engines at 16,200 gallons. This element for all the engines would, however, facilitate their comparison, though no strictly scientific investigation is aimed at, and none was contemplated at the time of making the observations.


It will be seen, by inspecting the above table, that the cylinder power of the Baltimore coal engines is less, for the adhesion they have to overcome, than the Champlain's; and therefore they require to be worked either on the full stroke, or, if on the cut-off, under a very high pressure of steam, which results, indirectly, in the greater consumption of fuel for work done. To understand this clearly, it must be borne in mind that the use of the cut-off on coal engines has a more important bearing on, the economy of fuel than the same arrangement upon a wood-burning engine, and for these reasons: when the coal engines are worked upon the full stroke, the exhaust is very strong, and the draft through the fire proportionally increased; this soon produces an exceedingly hot fire, and every fresh supply of coals thrown upon it at once crumbles and compacts upon the grate, offering increased resistance to the passage of air through its mass, while less perfect combustion results, and much of the finer coal upon the surface is carried through the tubes and wasted. This "cutting-up" of the fire, as it is termed, will take place when necessity requires that the engine should be worked upon the full stroke, and for this reason the cut-off becomes indispensable to a good coal-burning engine.


The first effect produced by a change from the full stroke to the cutoff is that of lessening the draft through the fire by the moderated exhaust in the stack, evaporation then goes on more slowly in the boiler, and would reduce the pressure of steam necessary to working on the cutoff, were there no means of again increasing the intensity of the draft. The variable exhaust, however, furnishes this with facility, and evaporation again becomes rapid, though with much less disturbance to the fire. All these considerations were well understood at the time the Baltimore coal engines were being constructed, and the necessity for cylinders even of a greater diameter than 16.5 inches, in anticipation of an adhesion of only twenty-three tons, was urged by the builder, but not allowed by the engineer of your road. This restriction, together with the increased weight of the engine beyond that anticipated, has impaired the beneficial effects of the cutoff on the Baltimore coal engines to such an extent, that economy in the consumption of steam, and more quiet combustion of coal, is almost counteracted by the rapid evaporation required for the small cylinders. 1 would not be understood by this to controvert the received truth, that the same quantities of heat will evaporate equal quantities of water under all pressures; for so far as this question alone is considered, mere size of cylinders could have no effect in increasing or diminishing the quantity of fuel consumed; but for the practical difficulties just stated, and the fact that, for higher pressures, higher temperatures are required, and therefore radiation from all parts of the boiler must take place to a greater extent, a larger expenditure of fuel will result. To this loss there must also be added that caused by leakage, which is in direct proportion to the pressures; and when it is required to carry steam very high, self-preservation teaches men to keep the boiler blowing off all the time, as the only surety that steam is not made too fast.


When the Baltimore engines are worked on the full stroke, they make an abundance of steam with seven inches area of blast-pipe, though the effect upon the fire is to cut it up, as explained; but when working on the cut-off, the area of the blast-pipe requires to be so reduced, that much of the ill effects on the full stroke are felt, and the resistance due to the blast-pipe is also greatly increased, for its area may be reduced to 2.25 inches. No better proof of' the inadequacy of the cut-off alone, to ensure economy with the present size of cylinders, can be offered than the fact that, except where attention has been paid by the engine-man to the variable exhaust, the economy due to the cut-off has not resulted from its use.


During the early working of these engines on the Reading Road, it was with much difficulty that men could be induced to use the cut-off and the engines were for some time worked on the full stroke, with a consumption of about 10.5 tons per round trip; now the cut-off is used entirely on all the engines, and yet, by referring to the observations made upon the Ohio, her consumption of fuel is not diminished; while, again, it is seen that the same engines have made trips over the road under the same circumstances with one-half this quantity of fuel.


Where so much depends upon men, it is almost impossible to say what may be accomplished with the engines as at present proportioned. The best results obtained with these engines show that one ton of coal is equal to two cords of wood in the Champlain, and the avenge every- day work upon the road shows that they compare with this engine as 1 to 1.37; this is allowing nine tons of coal to the round trip, a quantity, however, which they do not consume, for I should estimate that one ton of this is thrown or wasted from the tender, the floor of which is grated; coal, moreover, is so plentiful on the Reading Road that care is not taken to preserve, for stationary purposes, that which is not considered the best for locomotives; but, without regard to this waste, I am of opinion that the engines, as they are constructed, may be made to do their work every day, with a consumption of fuel which shall not exceed one ton of coal for 1.62 cords of wood in the best wood-burning engine on the road. With the other wood-burning engines, the coal-burners would compare more favorably, even should the cut off be applied to them. It is quite practicable to substitute cylinders 18 inches in diameter on the Baltimore coal engines, in place of the 16.5 inches, and then the consumption of coal to wood, in all probability, would bear that proportion which experience proves attainable, viz: one ton of anthracite coal to two cords of wood.


In reviewing all the facts touching the consumption of coal in locomotive engines, I would draw your attention, in conclusion, to the table of fuels consumed on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, from 1833 to 1848. By an examination of this table it will be seen what experience alone can do in reducing expenditures, for it will be easy to detect the same engine through a period of years, and see her progressive economy in the consumption of fuel. Time and experience alone have accomplished this, and much may be expected for the Reading Railroad when, by the more general use of anthracite coal, it shall be regarded less a matter for experiment than an important element of railway success, to be perfected with care and attention.


The subject of extra cost for repairs of coal over wood-burning engines has been investigated with care, and it will be unnecessary here to enlarge upon what has already been said; the statements in detail show what the extra cost has been for the Baltimore engines, and I propose now to offer a few concluding remarks, suggested by past experience, upon the probable diminution in this expense.


Experience thus far proves that the copper fire-sheets are destroyed far more rapidly by the mechanical action of the particles of anthracite coal than, by the intense local heat, and it becomes, therefore, a matter to be considered in renewing these sheets, whether copper may be made more secure against this unexpected deterioration, or whether it might not be well to resort again to iron; for if with care and means it can be made sound, it will not only be more economical in its first cost, but resisting as it does the mechanical action of the coal, will last a long time, and reduce the present cost for repairs to a very small amount.


The estimate which has been submitted of the actual cost of renewing the fire-place of the engine Baltimore is $378; if deduction be made for one-third less material in fire-place, (as explained,) this expense will be reduced to $345. The principal consideration, however, is, how frequently will these copper sheets require renewing? - the first copper fireplace has been destroyed after fourteen months' service over 23,845 miles of road, but experience has suggested improvements in renewing these sheets; additional stay-bolts have been put in the fire-box to prevent the copper, (which becomes very ductile by the intense local heat,) from being bulged out, and thus forming projections in the fire-place, readily acted upon by the particles of coal in motion. By this additional security to the Baltimore's copper fire-sheets, there is reason to believe that its fire-box will last two years, and I submit an estimate of the annual cost for repairs of these engines in accordance with this view.


Cost per annum for renewing fire-sheets 26 inches wide, after two years' service,


Cost per annum for all other expenses, . . . . . . . .


                  Total cost per annum over wood-burning engines, . . . .



Iron would undoubtedly be a better material for fire-sheets than copper, but the uncertainty attending its use has caused it to be discarded in coal engines upon roads of any length and business; this has been the case on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad with the use of bituminous coal, though less destructive in its effects than anthracite. Iron-masters, however, have not been called upon for a quality of iron so superior as that required for the fire-places of coal engines; but when it is understood that such iron will command a ready sale and price, in proportion to its cost, I doubt not but it will be produced.


Whether copper or iron shall be the material used, experience shows that great advantage is gained by constructing the fire-boxes so that repairs and renewals of sheets, may be made with the least expense in time and materials; attention to this has resulted in producing coal engines of a later construction than those on the Reading Road, with their fire-places much simplified for this important consideration.


There are other parts of the fire-box liable to depreciation beside that part in the immediate vicinity of the coal fire, but they have not been referred to by me in the estimate for repairs just given, as experience had shown that such parts, (crown, side, and back sheets,) when more than twenty inches above the grate, had not required renewing, either on the Reading Road with the use of anthracite coal, or on the Baltimore and Ohio Road with the use of bituminous coal; it was not, therefore, considered of sufficient importance to estimate in detail this possible extra expense, but it was believed that the above-mentioned sum of $379.50 would be found quite sufficient to cover all contingencies, even with the present early experience with coal engines; for when, after several years' working of an engine, it shall become necessary to renew these sheets, the cost per annum to cover this expense will be but small.


I have made no allowance for renewing the tube or flue sheet in the fire-box end of the boiler, as such extra expense is not necessarily entailed on coal-burning engines. Before sufficient experience had been had with coal engines, these tube sheets were put in too thin, and the distance between the tubes was so slight that the operation of caulking broke the head through from one tube to the other. I am aware that such difficulty is experienced with the Baltimore coal engines on the Reading Road, but the present mode of renewing such sheets will prevent this expense recurring sooner than with wood-burning engines.


In comparing the cost for repairs of fire-place, tubes, &c., in any engine on the Reading Railroad, with similar repairs of engines on other roads, the amount of fuel consumed in a given time is that which will determine their relative periods of duration. Now the Reading Road has great advantages over all other roads in this country, in the amount of work which can be done over it in a given time, for its grades are light and descending in the direction of the trade; and when the work of each engine on this road is compared with the work on an undulating road, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Road from Harper's Ferry to Cumberland, it will be found that the consumption of fuel is in proportion to the work done.

 If the Baltimore and Ohio Road, (whose measured distance is about equal to the Reading Road,) had no grades exceeding the angle of repose; or, in other words, no grades which allowed a load to be propelled entirely by its gravitation, then the statement above would show the proportions of work done to coal consumed in running the same number of miles; but when the grades exceed this limit, (30 feet per mile, or 12.78 lbs. per ton for friction being taken as the angle of repose,) then all such distance must be equated in order to arrive at the whole work done. By referring to the description of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Harper's Ferry to Cumberland, it will be seen that fourteen miles ascend, and ten miles descend, at a rate of thirty to forty feet per mile, thus making in the round trip twenty-four miles of this grade to be overcome, and the same distance to be moved through by the gravitation of the load. The ascending grade will be equal to about fifty-two miles of level road, and as steam is necessarily made and blown off in descending the twenty-four miles by gravity, it is estimated to be equal to taking the load over eight miles of level road; this will make sixty miles of equated distance in place of forty-eight of measured distance. The curvature of the Reading Railroad, and that portion of the Baltimore and Ohio Road between Harper's Ferry and Cumberland, is about equal.



It has been shown that the miles run during the past year by the coal engines on the Reading Road, and by engines of the same class on the Baltimore and Ohio, were about 17,000, but, by the above table, it will be seen that the work done in the same time is in the proportion of 1 R. to 0.56 B.&O., and the coal consumed to do this work, in the proportion of 1 R. to 056 B. & 0., consequently the duration of fire-places, &c., will be in the proportion of 0.56 R. to 1 B.&O. Anthracite coal, I presume, will always be more destructive in its effects than bituminous; but how much more so can only be known by experience; this much only is known: that a copper fireplace of one of the Baltimore and Ohio engines (the first one) has been removed after three years' service, over 54,000 miles of road, and a copper fire-place of one of the Baltimore coal engines on the Reading Road (the first one) has been removed after fourteen months' service, over 23,845 miles of road, which shows their durability for equal quantities of coal consumed to have been as 1 R. to 1.24 B.&O.


When the difficulties attending the use of anthracite coal in locomotive engines are considered in connexion with the entire want of experience with this fuel, on a scale adequate to the necessities of the Reading Road, it will not be too much to say that the Baltimore engines have been entirely successful as coal burners; the term is but comparative, and assigns no limit to the success which I believe will follow well directed efforts to improve such details as passing experience shall show to be necessary to insure greater economy of fuel, or greater durability of parts.


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Rev. January 2011