No. 63. A Water-Clock, made to govern the quantities of Liquid flowing from a Vessel.
A VESSEL containing wine, and provided with an open spout, stands upon a pedestal: it is required by shifting a weight to cause the spout to pour forth a given quantity, - sometimes, for instance, a half cotyle (1/4 pint), sometimes a cotyle (1/2 pint), and, in short, whatever quantity we please. A B (fig. 63), is the vessel into which wine is to be poured: near the bottom is a spout, D: the neck is closed by the partition E F, and through E F is inserted a tube, G H, reaching neary to the bottom of the vessel, but so as to allow of the passage of water. K L M N is the pedestal on which the vessel stands, and O X another tube reaching within a little of the partition and extending into the pedestal, in which water is placed so as to cover the orifice 0, of the tube. Fix a rod, P R, one half within, and the other without, the pedestal, moving like the beam of a lever about the point S; and from the extremity P of the rod suspend a water-clock, T, having a hole in the bottom. The spout D having been first closed, the vessel should be filled through the tube G H before water is poured into the pedestal, that the air may escape through the tube X 0: then pour water into the pedestal, through a hole, until the orifice 0 is closed, and set the spout D free. It is evident that the wine will not flow, as there is no opening through which air can be introduced: but if we depress the extremity R of the rod, a portion of the water-clock will be raised from the water, and, the vent 0 being uncovered, the spout D will run until the water suspended in the water-clock has flowed back and closed the vent 0. If, when the water-clock is filled again, we depress the extremity N still further, the liquid suspended in the water-clock will take a longer time to flow out, and there will be a longer discharge from D: and if the water-clock be entirely raised above the water, the discharge will last considerably longer. To avoid the necessity of depressing the extremity R of the rod with the hand, take a weight Q, sliding along the outer portion of the rod, R W, and able, if placed at R, to lift the whole water-clock; if at a distance from R, some smaller portion of it. Then, having obtained by trial the quantities which we wish to flow from D, we must make notches in the rod R W and register the quantities; so that, when we wish a given quantity to flow out, we have only to bring the weight to the corresponding notch and leave the discharge to take place.